403 Forbidden errors are Nginx’s way of telling “You have requested for a resource but we cannot give it to you.” 403 Forbidden is technically not an error but a HTTP status code. 403 response headers are intentionally returned in many cases such as -
- User is blocked from requesting that page/resource or the site as a whole.
- User tries to access a directory but
autoindexis set to
- User tries to access a file that can be only accessed internally.
These are some among many cases where a 403 Forbidden response is intentionally returned. But here we will talk about the causes of 403 responses that are unintentional/not desired which generally occur as a result of misconfiguration on the server side.
Permissions are not set correctly
This is the most common cause of this error. By permissions, I do not only mean the permissions for the file that is being accessed. In order to serve a file, Nginx needs to have read permissions for the file as well as execute permissions for every hierarchial parent directory of the file to chdir to it. For example, to access the file located at -
Nginx needs to have read permissions for the file as well as execute permissions for
/usr/share/myfiles. If you use the standard 755 for directories and 644 for files (umask: 022), you should not run into this problem.
To check for ownership and permissions on a path, we can use the
namei utility like this -
$ namei -l /var/www/vhosts/example.com f: /var/www/vhosts/example.com drwxr-xr-x root root / drwxr-xr-x root root var drwxr-xr-x www-data www-data www drwxr-xr-x www-data www-data vhosts drwxr-xr-x clara clara example.com
Directory index is not properly defined
Sometimes, the index directive does not contain the desired directory index. For example, for a standard setup with PHP, the index directive should be -
index index.html index.htm index.php;
According to this example, when a directory is acessed directly, Nginx will try to serve index.html, then index.htm and index.php after that. If none of them are found, Nginx will return a 403 header. If index.php were not defined in the root directive, Nginx would have returned 403 without checking for the existence of index.php.
Similarly, for a Python setup, index.py should be defined as a directory index.
These are the most common causes of undesired 403 responses. Feel free to leave a comment if you are still getting 403s.